What is an Initial Public Offering? What are the various benefits of it?

Initial Public Offering (IPO) is referred to in simple terms as the process of offering shares of a private organization to the public for the first time. This is to increase the equity capital required for the growth and development of the organization or industry by selling shares to public investors. This is an important period for any business as well as the investors as it makes the owners realize the gains from their investment and how it results. But how does the whole process work out? What is the need for IPO? and what are the various benefits that can be achieved through IPO? Let’s dive into this article to hopefully find answers to all the questions that we have raised above.

What creates the need for an IPO?

The most basic and primary response to the question “What creates the need for an IPO?” is either of these two reasons: Raising Capital for new projects or Boosting and creating a company’s social profile to gain and attract consumers as well as investors. Going IPO public usually gives the company or organization great publicity. Although it has its benefits, going IPO creates a hassle for the company as the company has the disclose some of the important data to the public to notify their investors. Filing quarterly and annual reports to answer shareholders and reporting requirements such as stock trading and much more. So although it does create a good amount of funds for the company to work with, it does come up with a lot of complications.

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How do IPOs Work?

Before the introduction of an IPO to the company, it is considered an entirely private company. The company grows based on self-funding, and a relatively small number of shareholders like the founders, family members who have initiated to help and some friends with some professional investors who are commonly known as venture capitalists or angel investors.

As IPO is introduced for a company or organization, millions of people are ready to acquire the opportunity to hold shares in private companies as this can benefit both the business as well as the shareholders. The amount that a single claim is sold by an investor at can be the new price to gain equity in the company. This is precisely why share markets are filled with hawk-eyes, as soon as the value of the shares reaches a certain height, investors start selling their shares to other investors and hence profit off of it but also give the company a new shareholder then forward.

What are the various steps for an IPO?

IPO primarily consists of two phases, one is considered the pre-marketing or pre-IPO phase the other one is when the IPO is introduced. The steps for an IPO can be classified as such:

  • Proposals or Negotiations: The company describes itself and what are the various services they provide and what price they are willing to offer per share and the number of shares it’ll be selling.
  • Underwriting: A formal agreement through which both parties mutually agree to the various terms and conditions. Other members such as different officers, experts, and lawyers are also involved.
  • Documentation: Files are documented by the company and are submitted for IPO, the primary step being the S-1 registration which is further divided into two parts – the privately held filing information and the prospectus. These documents and the prospectus for the pre-IPO processes are constantly revised.
  • Markets and Various Updates: Final prices and dates of issuance are released and both the SEC requirements as well as the listing requirements are expected to be exchanged.
  • Accounting and a Team: Formation of a board of directors to maintain and review auditable financial information and account information every quarter.
  • Shares Distributed: The company issues all the shares and the shareholders are kept recorded in a balance sheet, the balance sheet share value does get dependent on the company’s shareholders’ equity per share valuation extensively.
  • Post-IPO: Underwriters may be provided with an additional period to purchase an exclusive amount of shares after the IPO date meanwhile, certain investors are observed with quiet periods.

What are the various benefits of IPO?

Investing in a starting company that you feel has the potential to eventually grow provides you with the best chances to invest in it at the earliest stages. This could very well benefit you in the long term business or savings as well as IPO is an equity investment. You are provided with the utmost price transparency and in turn, providing you with the same information that the larger investors generally have.


Although IPO provides you with the fundamentals of investment and can help you get your way through the initial investing processes, every business is a double-edged sword. While some IPOs do reach the furthest of distances, others necessarily don’t. An investor must mindfully invest in the potentially rich market nowadays as market shares are high risk. It can in one way be considered modern-day gambling, you win big, and you lose harder too. Consider your options and invest in the ones that you think have the most potential and cover the domain of your interest and values. Be a hawk and keep an eye on when the shares drop or what is the best time to be selling the shares. Read every document carefully before stating anything legally as it may land you in unnecessary trouble. Hope this article helped you with the basics of IPO and happy investing.

Conclusion – Initial Public Offering

Increasing the issuing company’s stock base and raising the company’s profile are two of the many desirable outcomes of an IPO. Meanwhile, it offers a chance for financial backers to reap substantial profits. Opportunities may be found in the stock market, but only if you keep an eye on the latest IPOs and know how to analyse financial parameters.